Track A. Asia Privacy Bridge Forum
Data Protection Laws & Regulations in Korea
Hyunjun Kwon (KISA)
In the Korean constitution, the right to privacy and control one’s
personal information are stated as a fundamental right. Korean laws
regarding personal information protection constitute of general and
special laws. The general law is the Personal Information Protection Act (PIPA), whereas the special laws are the Credit Information Law and Information Communications Network Act.
Different rules as regards protection of personal information in Korea
include the Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) and Personal Information Management System (PIMS).
System and Practice: The Exploration of Private Data Protection in China
Tial Li (Peking University)
China still lacks general laws and has no clear and appropriate ones
regarding personal information protection. Therefore, no laws are
specifically concerned with collecting, saving, sending, and handling
of personal information protection. Although comprehensive personal
information protection laws are lacking, personal information is protected under basic crime and civil law provisions through other laws in several relevant areas. Private data protection in China is under progress. Chinese national leaders are introducing “cybersecurity for citizens and society.”
Act on the Protection of Personal Information and Information Moral
Eiji Aoki (Institute for Hyper Network Society)
In the future, there will be changes in every field, such as ICT and
cars, agriculture, medicine, social infrastructure, retail and marketing, finance, manufacturing, education, media, and business administration. In particular, the importance of personal information continues to grow with the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Internet of Everything (IoE). In this new environment, new rights should be recognized. For a safer society, there must be an understanding of information morals through ways such as research on righteous ICT.
Cross-Border Data Transfer in Korean Privacy Law Perspective
Taewook Kang (BAE, KIM & LEE LLC)
There are many challenges in applying personal information protection to actual situations. Under the current law, prior to receiving consent to provide personal data, the recipient’s name must be assigned and shared. However, in many situations, distinguishing the recipient when receiving prior consent is difficult.
As the cloud server has become widely used, legal requirements for
permission and notice have created challenges for IT network service providers. Under the cloud server, identifying the location (country) and providing prior legal notice are difficult. For cloud server service provider companies, options other than through receiving comprehensive consent are unavailable.
Moreover, under the assumption that big data are considered “personal data,” as a rule, each user’s consent is necessary when collecting mass data and those from other countries for marketing analysis. However, Korean laws and regulations are ambiguous, and standards for big data are also unclear.
Privacy in the Asia on the Move
Hiroshi Miyashita (Zhou University)
Since the introduction of Big Data and IoT, people do not know to which they are connected. Additionally, as there has been active trans-border exchange of data internationally, individuals and businesses transcend national borders. Cooperation between nations to manage the upcoming privacy issues is vital. The APB Forum should prevent and address possible issues through shared research between nations, exchange of outstanding cases, privacy design contests, various education measures, and promotional and research activities.
Introduction and Improvement of Regulation Regarding Personal Information Cross-border Transfer in China
Wu, Rihuan (China University of Political Science and Law)
Many Korean businesses and transnational corporations are currently working in China and save data abroad, creating the need for personal information cross-border transfer laws. Ass general laws for personal information protection are lacking, many issues have surfaced. Although around 20 laws involve regulations relevant to personal information, the breach of a law on personal information is difficult to punish because of a lack of specificity. In the future, there should be specific regulations for businesses in China to utilize and protect personal information.
Track B. Beyond Digital Gap
Creating a Classification System for Senior Citizens and Investigating Key Requirements for ICT Service Development
Kyungmi Jeong (Yonsei University)
Korea will become an aging society in 2018 and an elderly one in
2026. Current welfare services for the elderly include assisted baths and home care. Other than these services, in reality, the elderly seek jobs and classes appropriate for their demographic groups. There are many healthy and financially secured senior citizens, but the services provided for them do not address adequately the situations mentioned above. Although the elderly and their skills continue to grow, existing services only cater to a minority of elders. Programs that provide assistance to senior citizens in their daily lives should consider factors such as economic status, cognitive skills, emotional state, health condition, and housing situation.
A New Form of Digital Divide in the Digital Age: Focusing on Generational Differences and the Second Divide for the Senior Generation
Yongsuk Hwang (Konkuk University)
Among the main sources of conflict in society is generation gap.
Regarding the media, different generations receive information
through varying sources. In Korean society, surveys on political views and knowledge of the world show highlight such gap. The younger generation uses platforms, such as social media, to receive information and, consequently, obtain messages from groups with similar types of views. In contrast, the information that the older generation receives from the mainstream and traditional media is different. Communication technology is growing rapidly.
Adoption and utilization of technology are a matter of whether citizens obtain life opportunities regarding technology. Policies on digital and cultural resources being equal is a common misconception, as equality of opportunity is at the heart of the issue. Equality of opportunity through digital technology is secured through allowing digital skills to be accessed easily and understood by everyone. The utility of opportunities is maximized as more opportunities are provided.
Why is the Digital Divide a Relevant Topic for Discussion in the Intelligence and Information Age?
Bongsup Kim (National Information Society Agency)
Which factors should be considered to overcome the digital divide in the “smart” era? Broad & Fisher (2004) shared 5C (Connectivity, Capability, Content, Confidence, Continuity) as five viewpoints in the model for overcoming the digital divide.
1) Connectivity: issues of availability and reliability regarding data
communication technology and access to services, and the duty of
policies to secure physical access to infrastructure
2) Capability: digital competency at an institutional and an individual
level, not only using data communication technology but also creating measures for cultivating individual and institutional values
3) Content: offering information services according to the user’s lifestyle through ways relevant to objectives and languages, the importance of accurate recognition, and analysis of the user’s desires
4) Confidence: related to self-efficacy, changing the situation from the
problem of whether one possesses or lacks information to a matter of
the presence or absence of desire for information, measures to continue to increase awareness, and self-efficacy regarding the utility of data communication technology services
5) Community: continuous efforts to connect the real and virtual worlds organically as ICT is integrated into everyday life
FinTech’s Trends in User Certified Technology
Seunghun Jin (ETRI)
FinTech’s main trends can be explained as VIP3 (Variety, Intelligence, Privacy, P2P, Phishing). First FinTech’s certification method offers convenience through diversification, intellectualization, analysis of user activities, and live situation detection. Security is strengthened through continuous confirmations and detection of abnormalities. However, privacy and phishing issues are arising as various information is utilized to provide users with convenience.
Increased Income Inequality Issues from Job Polarization in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Jisun Lim (Barun ICT Research Center, Yonsei Univ.)
The changes in technology, which arise from the Fourth Industrial
Revolution, allow working conditions for laborers to be flexible and
consumers to become agents in production as a part of the transition
into a prosumer economy through consumer-based production methods. Consequently, issues related to income inequality rather than job creation may arise. Hence, to overcome income inequality issues, the government should reduce hours of labor, offer reeducation for jobs, and enhance e-government to facilitate the creation of quality jobs.
Track C. 4th Industrial Revolution: Workforce
Changes and Jobs in the Upcoming Intelligence and Information Age
Yonghyun Kwon (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning)
Data is the key to the development of artificial intelligence. Algorithms are enhanced autonomously through data. Without data, even the smartest scientist is unable to create good artificial intelligence. The Fourth Industrial Revolution will change the structure and features of businesses. Unlike the past, in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, labor and lowering the unit cost of equipment investments are not sources of competition.
There are optimistic and pessimistic views toward employment in the
Fourth Industrial Revolution. However, the basic repeated demand for jobs will be reduced. Current social policy systems for employment are based on the assumption that all adult men and women will receive secured incomes from their workplace for a lifetime. However, the future industrial structure will be different as companies will provide goods and services according to market data and change the required jobs occasionally based on market demand.
The Future of Advancements in Technology and Jobs
Doowon Cha (KISTEP)
Among the core values for the future is hyper connectivity. Economic
agents, industries, academia, culture, stratums, and existing national
resources will be connected efficiently and produce a society with new values and opportunities for growth, by eliminating the constraint of time and space. In the age of robotics devices, resolving literacy and digital divide will be a major issue, as the middle class will decrease and polarization will be intensified.
The Influence of Artificial Intelligence on Future Job Market
Gayeol Park (Korea Employment Information Service)
As technology develops, societal acceptance of technology becomes
important. Economic efficiency and an acceptance procedure within
society are as important as the technological aspects. In the short term, the strategy for future labor market should conduct a rigorous
analysis for jobs at risk of being replaced, and prepare for job changes. In the long-term, there must be a labor law framed around intelligence information platforms and an education system based on creative collaboration. In addition, results for technological innovations should be shared in society. Cooperation in the areas of policy systems, spread of education, and research development is vital.
Jobs in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Donghyun Lee (SPRI)
In the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the role of SW in resolving issues
will be magnified through automation, optimization, and flexibilization.
The three elements of the SW Revolution, which is identical to the
Fourth Industrial Revolution, are data integration, artificial intelligence, and user interface. There are differences in past SW technology regarding the range detectable, autonomous judgment, and ability to execute. Nevertheless, there are differences regarding technology between South Korea and advanced countries; South Korea is ranked 25th in the world in terms of the level of preparation in adjusting to the industrial revolution. South Korean companies are unprepared and linger around the level of automation and expansion of communication facilities. In this situation, specialists predict that five million jobs will disappear by 2020 and 63% of South Korean professionals are at risk for the upcoming 10 to 20 years. There are conflicting opinions on the future of jobs among specialists. The fear of job replacement has persisted for over 200 years since the Industrial Revolution. Conversely, the introduction of new technology offers equivalent and supplementary jobs.
New Attempts in Jobs in the Future
Youngseng Kim (KRIVET)
Through structural changes for artificial intelligence and business,
the development of technology is predicted to bring about changes
to types of work conditions and lifestyles over employment types and
automation. If the current pyramid structure continues, ICT will create a closed society. In contrast, by breaking free from the pyramid structure and activating ventures, seeking qualitative growth, and creating a society with more self-directed jobs and self-employment, there will be a shift to a society with many valuable medium-sized businesses. We should work toward this goal. Once value chains and industrial ecosystems have been activated, change becomes difficult to generate. Therefore, in creating policies for the intelligence information industry, the advancement of major corporations, medium-sized businesses, and the national economy in creating jobs should be considered.
Track D. 4th Industrial Revolution: Technology
Automobile and Aircraft Human-Machine Interface
Jihyun Yang (Kookmin University)
After airplanes have been developed with an autopilot function, several studies looked into the problems that could occur from automation. Automobiles and aircrafts share many similarities that allow for benchmarking. Their main difference is in their management agent. Although cars can be driven by anybody theoretically, airplanes are controlled by people who have received a high level of training. From the view of HMI, airplanes have a much more contained problem, whereas cars involve complex issues regarding the characteristics of a much broader demographic. AlphaGo calculates successfully during matches; its stones were placed by Professor Aja Huang, an engineer from Google. Although the artificial intelligence itself had an algorithm, it was not connected to the physical entity. The hardware in automobiles is faster than humans. If there were a safer software (e.g., HMI) that could keep up, it will have a great ripple effect in real life and be the self-driving car that one imagines.
The Prospective for the Drone Industry
in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Bosung Lee (Korea Aerospace Research Institute)
Drones, a combination of IT and aircraft technology, are currently used mainly for filming and have increased value through uniting with the traditional industry. Ventures relevant to drones are possible with only a computer, basic board, and kit. Specialized services can be provided after purchasing drones for everyday use. In the long-term, outsourcing businesses offering commissioned drone services for businesses will be successful. Drones are compatible with the characteristics of South Korean industry where IT programmers and high-tech manufacturing businesses can be united. Moreover, as the South Korean communication network is well developed, the existing communication network for everyday use can be applied. Following the smartphone market, drones may be the next platform to go beyond the niche market.
Intelligent Assistive Technology for Senior Citizens and the Disabled
Sungpil Kim (J.MARPLE)
Recently, rehabilitation robotics has been a controversial issue in
assistive technology. Even wheelchairs, which are considered a symbol of assistive technology, are being modernized through added arms. Assistive technology is also developing through the integration of many skills, such as partial replacements for muscles and an analysis of sentences that have been typed for word prediction through artificial intelligence technology. However, there have also been cases where issues that have existed in assistive technology were solved through unexpected forms of technology. For instance, although taxis were a difficult mode of transport for people with disabling hearing loss to use, the introduction of Kakao Taxi, which merely requires one to type the location and destination into his/her smartphone, has solved the problem. The example of Kakao Taxi shows that the focus is not necessarily to produce technology specifically targeted to people with disabilities but to consider them while creating technology for better efficiency.
VR/AR Technology in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Junsung Bang (ETRI)
Virtual and artificial realities offer us a new space. As people are interested in forming social networks in virtual space, virtual reality will develop separate personal and shared spaces. Moreover, as headmounted display (HMD) performance is enhanced, various interaction functions and participatory contents will emerge. As HMD functions are advanced, there are currently contents that offer different storytelling based on people’s actions. To create these participatory contents, understanding of how users act and communicate in virtual reality is the most important factor. We should also consider and prepare for copyright concerns for works produced in other space-time, personal information issues arising from customized services, information inequality problems, and the control of unethical actions in advance.
Intelligent Automobiles, the Research Trend for Autonomous Technology
Euntae Kim (Yonsei University)
There is a difference between traditional automobile manufacturing companies and IT businesses in the development of self-driving cars. For car manufacturing companies, such as Mercedes-Benz and BMW, safety is the main concern when the car is operated and the development method has occurred from Level 1 step-by-step. For IT manufacturing companies, bringing the technology to life is the most important issue and research has been conducted from Level 4. Currently, IT businesses, computer companies, and circuitry businesses have merged. Self-driving technology may come to life soon.
은 “개인정보 보호법(이하 개인정보보호법)” 웹사이트 운영을 위해 준수해야 할 관련 법령의 개인정보 보호 규정을 준수하고 있으며, 이를 바탕으로 정보주체의 권익보호를 위해 최선을 다하고 있습니다. 의 개인정보 처리방침은 다음과 같은 내용을 담고 있습니다. 제1조 (개인정보의 수집 항목 및 방법) 가. 개인정보 수집 항목 - 필수정보 : 성명, 소속 기관, 부서명, 직위(직책), 휴대전화, 이메일주소 나. 수집방법 : 온라인 사전 등록 신청서 작성 제2조 (개인정보의 처리 목적) 가. 운영 ‘바른ICT연구소’ 행사 참가 안내, 참가 신청 확인 및 출입증 발급, 참가 확인증 발급 등 운영에 관련한 목적으로 개인정보를 처리합니다. 나. 민원처리 개인정보 열람, 개인정보 정정·삭제, 개인정보 처리정지 요구, 개인정보 유출사고 신고 등 개인정보와 관련된 민원처리를 목적으로 개인정보를 처리합니다. 제3조 (개인정보의 처리 및 보유 기간) 은 관련 법령에서 명시하고 있는 개인정보 보유ㆍ이용기간 또는 정보주체로부터 동의 받은 개인정보 보유ㆍ이용기간 내에서 개인정보를 처리ㆍ보유합니다. 각각의 개인정보 처리 및 보유 기간은 다음과 같습니다. 가. 참가자 정보 : 참가일로부터 3년 나. 개인정보 열람 등 요구 처리 사용자 정보 : 개인정보 열람 등 요구 접수시부터 3년 다. 유출사고 신고 처리 사용자 정보 : 유출신고 접수 시부터 3년 제4조 (개인정보의 제3자 제공) 은 원칙적으로 참가신청자의 개인정보를 제3자에게 제공하지 않습니다. 제5조 (개인정보처리 위탁) ① 은 원활한 개인정보 업무처리를 위하여 다음과 같이 개인정보 처리업무를 위탁하고 있습니다. 가. 위탁받는 자 (수탁자) : ㈜이인벤션 - 주소 : 서울시 구로구 디지털로33길 50, 301(구로동, 벽산디지털밸리 7차) - 전화 : 02-2630-8777 - 근무시간 : 09:00 - 18:00 - 위탁하는 업무의 내용 : 시스템 운영 및 유지보수, 데이터 추출 및 가공 나. 위탁받는 자 (수탁자) : ㈜온오프믹스 - 주소 : 서울시 서초구 신반포로 45길 22 은양빌딩 5층 - 전화 : 02-6080-5579 - 근무시간 : 09:00 - 18:00 - 위탁하는 업무의 내용 : 참가자 등록 처리를 위한 데이터 추출 및 가공 ② 은 위탁계약 시 개인정보 보호 관련 법규의 준수, 개인정보에 관한 3자 제공 금지 및 책임부담 등을 명확히 규정하여 계약내용을 보관하고 있으며, 업체 변경 시 공지사항 및 개인정보 처리방침을 통해 고지하겠습니다. 제6조(정보주체의 권리ㆍ의무 및 행사방법) ① 정보주체는 에 대해 언제든지 다음 각 호의 개인정보 보호 관련 권리를 행사할 수 있습니다. 가. 개인정보 열람요구 나. 오류 등이 있을 경우 정정 요구 다. 삭제요구 라. 처리정지 요구 ② 제1항에 따른 권리 행사는 에 대해 서면, 전화, 전자우편, 모사전송(FAX) 등을 통하여 하실 수 있으며 은 이에 대해 지체 없이 조치하겠습니다. ③ 정보주체가 개인정보의 오류 등에 대한 정정 또는 삭제를 요구한 경우에는 은 정정 또는 삭제를 완료할 때까지 당해 개인정보를 이용하거나 제공하지 않습니다. ④ 제1항에 따른 권리 행사는 정보주체의 법정대리인이나 위임을 받은 자 등 대리인을 통하여 하실 수 있습니다. 이 경우 개인정보 보호법 시행규칙 별지 제11호 서식에 따른 위임장을 제출하셔야 합니다. ⑤ 정보주체는 개인정보 보호법 등 관계법령을 위반하여 가 처리하고 있는 정보주체 본인이나 타인의 개인정보 및 사생활을 침해하여서는 안 됩니다. ⑥ 정보주체의 열람, 정정, 삭제, 처리정지 요구 거절 시 불복을 위한 이의제기 절차는 다음과 같습니다. ▶ 불복 사유 - 정보공개 청구에 대한 의 열람거절 - 정보공개 청구에 대한 의 일부열람 - 정보공개 청구일로부터 20일 이내에 가 공개 여부를 통지 하지 않은 경우 ▶ 처리 절차 - 이의신청 : 열람여부의 결정 통지를 받은 날 또는 열람거절의 결정이 있는 것으로 보는 날부터 “30일” 이내 제기 - 행정심판 : 처분이 있음을 안 날로부터 “90일” 이내 제기(처분이 있은 날로부터 180일을 경과하면 제기 불가 - 행정소송 : 처분이 있음을 안 날로부터 “90일” 이내(처분이 있은 날로부터 1년을 경과하면 제기 불가). 제7조(개인정보의 파기) ① 는 개인정보 보유기간의 경과, 처리목적 달성 등 개인정보가 불필요하게 되었을 때에는 지체 없이 해당 개인정보를 파기합니다. ② 정보주체로부터 동의 받은 개인정보 보유기간이 경과하거나 처리목적이 달성되었음에도 불구하고 다른 법령에 따라 개인정보를 계속 보존하여야 하는 경우에는, 해당 개인정보를 별도의 데이터베이스(DB)로 옮기거나 보관 장소를 달리하여 보존합니다. ③ 개인정보 파기의 절차 및 방법은 다음과 같습니다. 가. 파기절차 은 파기 사유가 발생한 개인정보를 선정하고, 의 개인정보 보호책임자의 승인을 받아 개인정보를 파기합니다. 나. 파기방법 는 전자적 파일 형태로 기록ㆍ저장된 개인정보는 기록을 재생할 수 없도록 로우레밸포멧(Low Level Format) 등의 방법을 이용하여 파기하며, 종이 문서에 기록ㆍ저장된 개인정보는 분쇄기로 분쇄하거나 소각하여 파기합니다. 제8조(개인정보의 안전성 확보조치) 는 개인정보의 안전성 확보를 위해 다음과 같은 조치를 취하고 있습니다. ① 관리적 조치 : 내부관리계획 수립ㆍ시행, 정기적 직원 교육 등 ② 기술적 조치 : 개인정보처리시스템 등의 접근권한 관리, 접근통제시스템 설치, 보안프로그램 설치 ③ 물리적 조치 : 자료보관실 등의 접근통제 제9조(개인정보 보호책임자) ① 는 개인정보 처리에 관한 업무를 총괄해서 책임지고, 개인정보 처리와 관련한 정보주체의 불만처리 및 피해구제 등을 위하여 아래와 같이 개인정보 보호책임자를 지정하고 있습니다. ▶ 개인정보보호 책임자 성명 : 김범수 직책 : 연구소장 연락처 : 02-2123-6694 / email@example.com ② 정보주체께서는 에 참여하시면서 발생한 모든 개인정보 보호 관련 문의, 불만처리, 피해구제 등에 관한 사항을 개인정보 보호책임자 및 담당부서로 문의하실 수 있습니다. 은 정보주체의 문의에 대해 지체 없이 답변 및 처리해드릴 것입니다. 제10조(개인정보 열람청구) 정보주체는 개인정보 보호법 제35조에 따른 개인정보의 열람 청구를 아래의 사무국에 할 수 있습니다. 는 정보주체의 개인정보 열람청구가 신속하게 처리되도록 노력하겠습니다. ▶ 개인정보 열람청구 접수ㆍ처리 사무국 부서명 : 바른ICT연구소 연락처 : 02-2123-6694 / firstname.lastname@example.org 제11조(권익침해 구제방법) 정보주체는 아래의 기관에 대해 개인정보 침해에 대한 피해구제, 상담 등을 문의하실 수 있습니다. - 아래의 기관은 과는 별개의 기관으로서, 의 자체적인 개인정보 불만처리, 피해구제 결과에 만족하지 못하시거나 보다 자세한 도움이 필요하시면 문의하여 주시기 바랍니다. ▶ 개인정보보호 종합지원 포털 (행정자치부 운영) - 소관업무 : 개인정보 침해사실 신고, 상담 신청, 자료제공 - 홈페이지 : www.privacy.go.kr - 전화 : 02-2100-3394 ▶ 개인정보 침해신고센터 (한국인터넷진흥원 운영) - 소관업무 : 개인정보 침해사실 신고, 상담 신청 - 홈페이지 : privacy.kisa.or.kr - 전화 : (국번없이) 118 - 주소 : (58324) 전남 나주시 진흥길 9(빛가람동 301-2) 3층 개인정보침해 신고센터 ▶ 개인정보 분쟁조정위원회 - 소관업무 : 개인정보 분쟁조정신청, 집단분쟁조정 (민사적 해결) - 홈페이지 : www.kopico.go.kr - 전화 : 1833-6972 - 주소 : (03171) 서울특별시 종로구 세종대로 209 정부서울청사 4층 ▶ 경찰청 사이버안전국 - 소관업무 : 개인정보 침해 관련 형사사건 문의 및 신고 - 홈페이지 : cyberbureau.police.go.kr - 전화 : (사이버범죄) 02-393-9112 (경찰청 대표) 1566-0112 제12조(개인정보 처리방침 신설) 이 개인정보처리방침은 시행일로부터 적용되며, 법령 및 방침에 따른 변경내용의 추가, 삭제 및 정정이 있는 경우에는 가능한 변경사항의 시행 7일 전부터 공지사항을 통하여 고지할 것입니다. - 공고일자 : 2018년 4월 19일 - 시행일자 : 2018년 4월 19일